How Substitution of hazardous substances contributes to moving towards a circular economy

The present tool is part of the package of guidelines and tools developed within the Kemi I Kredsløb partnership to support Danish SMEs in substituting hazardous chemicals in their processes and products.

In 2015, the European Commission adopted an Action Plan to promote the transition to a more circular economy, where the value of products, materials and resources is maintained in the economy for as long as possible, and the generation of waste minimised. This is an essential contribution to the EU's efforts to develop a sustainable, low carbon, resource efficient and competitive economy (Click for more). In January 2018, the European Commission adopted a new set of measures, focusing on plastics, critical raw materials and the interface between chemical, product and waste legislation. Substituting chemicals of concern and enabling recycling and the up-taking of secondary raw materials are the two-fold objectives of the Circular Economy Action Plan. Substitution plays therefore a primary role in the circular economy strategy. But, how can we establish whether the substitution of a chemical of concern is actually contributing to making the economy more circular?

The present tool aims to help with this assessment, establishing a framework to evaluate the achievements and trade-offs on the following dimensions:

  • The substitution leads to the reduction of adverse impacts for the environment and the human health caused by chemicals and their application and production processes. It prevents and minimises risks through the better management of chemicals in processes and products;
  • The substitution leads to the reduction of energy and resource consumption at the different levels of the supply chains, minimising emissions and generating economic and social benefits over a long time period.
More precisely, the tool considers:
  • Difference in the hazard profile of the material used, before and after the substitution;
  • Difference in the energy use and therefore on the air emissions;
  • Difference in water and resource use, considering the amount of recycled input and the amount of output that can be recycled.

The tool can be used at the planning stage of the substitution, when different alternatives are being considered. Although at this stage the users may not have all the information required for a full evaluation, it helps to focus on those aspects that should be considered during the analysis of alternatives, beyond the hazard profile and the technical performance achievable. It can also be used once the substitution has taken place and information is available for a more thorough assessment. In this case, the tool highlights the benefits achieved and that should be communicated to all stakeholders (e.g. clients, actors along the supply chain, shareholders, employees) as well as the aspects for which instead additional efforts are necessary. The results of this simplified assessment are based on standard EU values on the emissions per tonne of energy consumed and on the benefits associated to a decrease in the emissions.

The final output is a report highlighting the potential contributions of the substitution to the different aspects considered. It is important to note that only a thorough assessment can determine whether substituting a chemical of concern is the right final decision. Nevertheless, the tool helps in understanding the different dimensions involved and assist in developing a communication strategy to promote the substitution within the company, with the actors along the supply chain and with the wider society.

Chemicals for Substitution

What is the name of the substance you want to substitute and the name of the chemical?

The substance to be substituted could be both intentionally manufactured or used in a process or product, contained in a mixture or may be generated during the production process. You can also substitute a substance by a non-chemical alternative.

Chemical Name for the chemical of the substance to be substituted:


Chemical Name of the the alternative chemical:

What is the CAS number?

If you are substituting the substance with a non-chemical alternative, please leave the field for the alternative blank.
Check the SDS or the ECHA Classification and Labelling Inventory Here

CAS Number for chemical of the substance to be substituted:


CAS Number of the the alternative chemical:

Please provide the hazard classifications of the substance to be substituted and of the alternative.

Check the SDS or ECHA Classification and Labelling Inventory here.
Please note: substitution rarely occurs as "one-to-one-substance" substitution. If the substance you want to substitute is contained in a mixture or material, you may want to consider the overall hazard profile of the mixture or material. If you are substituting the substance by adopting a new process which does not require/generate hazardous substances or by adopting a non-chemical alternative, you can leave the "alternative" fields blank.

Properties of Very High Concern:
Sensitization: H334 - May cause allergy or asthma symptoms or breathing difficulties if inhaled - Hazard Category 1/1A/1B:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H317 - May cause an allergic skin reaction - Hazard Category 1/1A/1B:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Germ cell mutagenicity H340 - May cause genetic defects (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 1/1A:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H341 - Suspected of causing genetic defects (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Carcinogenicity H350 - May cause cancer (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 1/1A :

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H351 - Suspected of causing cancer (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Reproduction toxicity H360 - May damage fertility or the unborn child (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H361 - Suspected of damaging fertility or the unborn child (state route of exposure if conclusively proven that no other route applies) - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H362 - May cause harm to breastfed children:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative


Known endocrine disruptor:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

PBT/vPvB or POPs substance:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Please provide the hazard classifications of the substance to be substituted and of the alternative.

Check the SDS or ECHA Classification and Labelling Inventory here.
Please note: substitution rarely occurs as "one-to-one-substance" substitution. If the substance you want to substitute is contained in a mixture or material, you may want to consider the overall hazard profile of the mixture or material. If you are substituting the substance by adopting a new process which does not require/generate hazardous substances or by adopting a non-chemical alternative, you can leave the "alternative" fields blank.

Acute toxicity:
Oral: H300 - Fatal if swallowed - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H300 - Fatal if swallowed - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H301 - Toxic if swallowed - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H302 - Harmful if swallowed - Hazard Category 4:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H303 - May be hamrful if swallowed - Hazard Category 5:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Dermal: H310 - Fatal in contact with skin - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H310 - Fatal in contact with skin - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H311 - Toxic in contact with skin - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H312 - Harmful in contact with skin - Hazard Category 4:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H313 - May be harmful in contact with skin - Hazard Category 5:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Inhalation: H330 - Fatal if inhaled - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H330 - Fatal if inhaled - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H331 - Toxic if inhaled - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H332 - Harmful if inhaled - Hazard Category 4:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H333 - May be hamrful if inhaled - Hazard Category 5:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Skin and eye damage:
Skin corrosion/irritation: H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage - Hazard Category 1A:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage - Hazard Category 1B:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H314 - Causes severe skin burns and eye damage - Hazard Category 1C:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H315 - Causes skin irritation - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H316 - Causes mild skin irritation - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Serious eye damage/irritation: H318 - Causes serious eye damage - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H319 - Causes serious eye damage - Hazard Category 2A:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H320 - Causes serious eye damage - Hazard Category 2B:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

STOT:
Single Exposure H370 - Causes damage to organs - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H371 - May cause damage to organs - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H335 - May cause respiratory irritation - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H336 - May cause drowsiness or dizziness - Hazard Category 3:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Repeated Exposure H372 - Causes damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H373 - May cause damage to organs through prolonged or repeated exposure - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Aspiration Hazard H304 - May be fatal if swallowed and enters airways - Hazard Category 1:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H305 - May be hamrful if swallowed and enters airways - Hazard Category 2:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

What is the hazard classification of the substance to be substituted and of the alternative?

Please note: substitution rarely occurs as 'one-to-one-substance' substitution. If the substance you want to substitute is contained in a mixture or material, you may want to consider the overall hazard profile of the mixture or material. If you are substituting the substance by adopting a new process which does not require/generate the substance or by adopting a non-chemical alternative?

Environmental:
Acute Aquatic Hazard: H400 - very toxic to aquatic life:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H401 - toxic to aquatic life:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H402 - hamrful to aquatic life:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Chronic Aquatic Hazard: H410 - very toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H411 - toxic to aquatic life with long lasting effects:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H412 - Harmful to aquatic life with long lasting effects:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

H413 - May cause long lasting harmful effects to aquatic life:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Ozone layer hazard: H420 - harms public health and the environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Please provide the weight of the Input Materials used

Please provide the weight of the input materials used to produce and package the company's primary products during the reporting period before and after the substitution.
Please include the following material types in the calculation of total materials used: raw materials; associated process materials, such as lubricants for manufacturing machinery; semi-manufactured goods or parts; materials for packaging purposes, including paper, cardboard and plastics.

Total Input Weight
    Substance to be substituted in kg       Alternative in kg

Please provide the weight percentages of the Input Materials used

Please provide the weight of the input materials used to produce and package the company's products interested by the substitution before and after this occurred.

Percentages of Total Input Weight Chemicals:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Metals:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Plastics:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Paper and Wood:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Ceramics and Glass:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Composites (resins, fibres,leather):

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Table of Weights

Materials Sub Alt
Chemicals 0kg 0kg
Metals 0kg 0kg
Plastics 0kg 0kg
Paper and Wood 0kg 0kg
Ceramics and Glass 0kg 0kg
Composites 0kg 0kg

Please provide the weight percentages of Recycled Input Materials used

If possible, please provide the percentages of input materials that was recycled before the substitution and that is recycled after the substitution. If you do not have this information by material class, please provide the share of input materials that were/are recycled before and after the substitution on the total quantity of input materials.

Percentages of Total Input Weight Chemicals recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Metals recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Plastics recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Paper and Wood recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Ceramics and Glass recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight

Composites (resins, fibres,leather) recycled:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage Weight       Alternative Percentage Weight



Table of Recycled Weights


Materials Sub Alt
Chemicals 0kg 0kg
Metals 0kg 0kg
Plastics 0kg 0kg
Paper and Wood 0kg 0kg
Ceramics and Glass 0kg 0kg
Composites 0kg 0kg

Please provide the Energy and Water used

Please provide an estimate of the volume of water used in the reporting period before and after the substitution, in litres:

    Substance to be substituted in L       Alternative in L

Please provide an estimate of the energy used in the reporting period before and after the substitution, in kWh:

    Substance to be substituted in kWh       Alternative in kWh

Please provide information on the output (products and packages) and waste generated

Please provide the weight of products and packages:

    Substance to be substituted in kg       Alternative in kg

Please provide the weight of hazardous waste:

    Substance to be substituted in kg       Alternative in kg

Please provide the weight of general waste:

    Substance to be substituted in kg       Alternative in kg

Please provide the percentage of products and packages that can be recycled before and after substitution:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage       Alternative Percentage

Please provide the percentage of general waste that can be recycled before and after substitution:

   Substance to be substituted Percentage       Alternative Percentage

Please provide information about the Service Units required

Please define the Service Unit and specify the number of service units achieved before and after the substitution. The "Service Unit" is the measure of comparison and is the service delivered by your product. It can be a measure of time (e.g. number of years of service life of a electric cable) or a measure of the number of "uses" of the product (e.g. number of times a t-shirt ( the product) is worn).

Please provide the number of service units:

    Substance to be substituted       Alternative

Thank You

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